You can find about travel advice such as public places & services, best restaurants, activities, sightseen and other key facts of the India .
India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the second-most populous country, the seventh-largest country by land area, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand, Myanmar and Indonesia.
Modern humans arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa no later than 55,000 years ago. Their long occupation, initially in varying forms of isolation as hunter-gatherers, has made the region highly diverse, second only to Africa in human genetic diversity. Settled life emerged on the subcontinent in the western margins of the Indus river basin 9,000 years ago, evolving gradually into the Indus Valley Civilisation of the third millennium BCE. By 1200 BCE, an archaic form of Sanskrit, an Indo-European language, had diffused into India from the northwest, unfolding as the language of the Rigveda, and recording the dawning of Hinduism in India. The Dravidian languages of India were supplanted in the northern and western regions. By 400 BCE, stratification and exclusion by caste had emerged within Hinduism, and Buddhism and Jainism had arisen, proclaiming social orders unlinked to heredity. Early political consolidations gave rise to the loose-knit Maurya and Gupta Empires based in the Ganges Basin. Their collective era was suffused with wide-ranging creativity, but also marked by the declining status of women, and the incorporation of untouchability into an organised system of belief. In South India, the Middle kingdoms exported Dravidian-languages scripts and religious cultures to the kingdoms of Southeast Asia.
In the early medieval era, Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Zoroastrianism put down roots on India's southern and western coasts. Muslim armies from Central Asia intermittently overran India's northern plains, eventually establishing the Delhi Sultanate, and drawing northern India into the cosmopolitan networks of medieval Islam. In the 15th century, the Vijayanagara Empire created a long-lasting composite Hindu culture in south India. In the Punjab, Sikhism emerged, rejecting institutionalised religion. The Mughal Empire, in 1526, ushered in two centuries of relative peace, leaving a legacy of luminous architecture. Gradually expanding rule of the British East India Company followed, turning India into a colonial economy, but also consolidating its sovereignty. British Crown rule began in 1858. The rights promised to Indians were granted slowly, but technological changes were introduced, and ideas of education, modernity and the public life took root. A pioneering and influential nationalist movement emerged, which was noted for nonviolent resistance and became the major factor in ending British rule. In 1947 the British Indian Empire was partitioned into two independent dominions, a Hindu-majority Dominion of India and a Muslim-majority Dominion of Pakistan, amid large-scale loss of life and an unprecedented migration.
India has been a federal republic since 1950, governed in a democratic parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society. India's population grew from 361 million in 1951 to 1.211 billion in 2011. During the same time, its nominal per capita income increased from US$64 annually to US$1,498, and its literacy rate from 16.6% to 74%. From being a comparatively destitute country in 1951, India has become a fast-growing major economy and a hub for information technology services, with an expanding middle class. It has a space programme which includes several planned or completed extraterrestrial missions. Indian movies, music, and spiritual teachings play an increasing role in global culture. India has substantially reduced its rate of poverty, though at the cost of increasing economic inequality. India is a nuclear-weapon state, which ranks high in military expenditure. It has disputes over Kashmir with its neighbours, Pakistan and China, unresolved since the mid-20th century. Among the socio-economic challenges India faces are gender inequality, child malnutrition, and rising levels of air pollution. India's land is megadiverse, with four biodiversity hotspots. Its forest cover comprises 21.7% of its area. India's wildlife, which has traditionally been viewed with tolerance in India's culture, is supported among these forests, and elsewhere, in protected habitats.
Foods in India :
(1) Masala dosa :
Arguably South India’s most renowned culinary export, masala dosas are famous the world over. A sort of Indian pancake, dosas are made from a thin batter consisting of rice, flour and lentils. Making dosas is no easy task, with the batter mixture having to soak in water for at least 24 hours before it can be shaped. Once ready, the batter is ladled onto a hot tava (griddle pan) and shaped in a similar way to how the French would shape a crepe. Traditionally, dosas are served folded in half and stuffed with potatoes. Accompaniments like hot sambar give the dish a spicy edge, and whatever you stuff them with, dosas are sure to provide a tasty yet satisfying meal.
(2) Chaat :
Synonymous with Delhi street food vendors, chaat is one of India’s most delicious savoury snacks. The name derives from three Hindi words meaning ‘a delicacy,’ ‘licking one’s fingers’ and ‘to devour with relish’ and this dish truly does live up to its heritage. Although there’s now a plethora of different varieties, the original chaat is a wonderful combination of diced potato pieces, crispy fried bread and chickpeas garnished with fresh coriander leaves, yoghurt and dried ginger and tamarind sauce. Make like a local and seek out a local dhaba, where the city’s specialist chaat variety will be available at nearly all times of day.
(3) Dal makhani :
Most foodies will have heard of or tasted dal, but there’s nothing quite like tasting the original dish in the country where it originated from. Dal is the Hindi word for lentils, and this soup-like delicacy is made by stewing small black lentils for hours on end. Whilst there are many different varieties of this lentil dish, dal makhani is in a league of its own. It’s considered the best of the best, and is reserved for big events like wedding celebrations. With makhani meaning ‘buttery’ in Hindi, there’s no prizes for guessing how rich and creamy this Indian classic tastes. Head to Punjab, in India’s north, to taste the real deal.
(4) Vada pav :
Originating in the traditionally vegetarian state of Maharashtra, vada pav is as close as Indian cuisine gets to veggie burgers. One for carb lovers, vada pav consists of a deep fried potato dumpling placed neatly inside a small bun. The finger food delicacy is generally accompanied by a couple of chutneys and a green chilli, to appeal to the spice loving palettes of Indians up and down the country. Also called a Bombay burger, these mini potato buns can be found in street food stalls across the city of Mumbai.
(5) Barfi :
We’ve cheated a little bit here, as the term barfi can be used to describe any number of Indian sweets. The most traditional type though is milk barfi. Predictably, these milk-based sweets are made from milk powder, condensed milk, ghee and cardamom powder. Barfi is not going to help anyone reach their health-conscious goals, but these indulgent fragrant desserts are sure to bring a smile to the face of anyone who tries them. These sweets are traditionally gifted as good luck offerings at occasions like wedding ceremonies, but there’s nothing to say you can’t pop down to the sweet shop to buy one to accompany your afternoon chai.
(6) Pani puri :
Pani puri, or gol guppa, are thought to originate from the northern state of Bihar. A perfect streetside snack, pani puri are hollow deep fried balls made of semolina or wheat. They’re served alongside spicy potatoes, chickpeas and a spicy tamarind water. Eating pani puri is an experience in itself, as you traditionally crack open the top of the deep fried shell with a spoon before filling it with the delicious accompaniments. Most Indians eat each pani puri with one swift bite, to save any of the filling spilling out of the delicate case. This infamous street snack unites most of the country – everyone from local college students to city businessmen can be found devouring them.
Weather & geography in India :
India is the seventh largest country in the world by size and it boasts an incredibly diverse collection of landscapes which are bordered along the eastern, western and southern coast by the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean respectively. In the north, the country shares its borders with Bangladesh, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and Pakistan, and just off the southern coast – alongside a number of islands – lies Sri Lanka. The country is largely divided up into a number of main regions geographically. These include the great mountains in the north; the Thar desert to the northwest; the Indo-Gangetic plain characterised by three important rivers (the Ganges, the Indus and the Brahmaputra); the peninsular plateau divided by central highlands and scattered with shallow valleys and rounded hills; and the coastal plains home to a great number of smaller rivers. There are also two main groupings of islands, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal, and the Lakshadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea.
In terms of climate, India can be divided into a number of regions. For the most part, the country has a tropical climate which throughout most of the interior is a mixture of wet and dry tropical weather. In northern parts there is a humid tropical climate and along the western coast lies wet tropical areas. Stretching in a strip up the centre of the country is a semi-arid climate, which also stretches across the north-west. Although stereotypical images may bring to mind the heat of India, the country can also experience extreme cold. This takes place largely in the northern mountainous regions which include the cold, arid and windswept Himalayas.
There are quite strong variations in India’s four seasons. The summer months can get extremely hot, stretching between March and June with maximum temperatures in certain parts reaching at least 40°C. This is the pre-monsoon season (though thunderstorms are experienced in the north-eastern and eastern parts of Bihar, Assam and West Bengal while in the plains of north-west India, hot and dry winds are common). July to September brings the monsoon rains which supply around three-quarters of the countries yearly rainfall. Autumn stretches from October to December and marks the transition to winter. Temperatures slowly start to decrease and there is also a reduction in the humidity experienced across the country. Rainfall is still common in some parts. Winter can begin as early as December, however for most areas January and February see the onset of of this cold season which brings average temperatures of between 10°C and 15°C in the northwest regions and between 20°C and 25°C in the southeast region of mainland India. The heaviest snowfall in the mountainous regions occurs between these months and the temperatures can drop well below zero.
Per day Cost in India :
A good mid-range budget for India would be around US $35-55/day per person. This'll allow you to have very nice double rooms, three meals a day (in a restaurant if you want), plenty of extra for excursions and transport on nice AC2 trains. This is a very comfortable budget in India.
History of India :
According to consensus in modern genetics anatomically modern humans first arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa between 73,000 and 55,000 years ago. However, the earliest known human remains in South Asia date to 30,000 years ago. Settled life, which involves the transition from foraging to farming and pastoralism, began in South Asia around 7,000 BCE. At the site of Mehrgarh presence can be documented of the domestication of wheat and barley, rapidly followed by that of goats, sheep, and cattle. By 4,500 BCE, settled life had spread more widely, and began to gradually evolve into the Indus Valley Civilization, an early civilization of the Old world, which was contemporaneous with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. This civilisation flourished between 2,500 BCE and 1900 BCE in what today is Pakistan and north-western India, and was noted for its urban planning, baked brick houses, elaborate drainage, and water supply.
In early second millennium BCE persistent drought caused the population of the Indus Valley to scatter from large urban centres to villages. Around the same time, Indo-Aryan tribes moved into the Punjab from Central Asia in several waves of migration. Their Vedic period (1500-500 BCE) was marked by the composition of the Vedas, large collections of hymns of these tribes. Their varna system, which evovled into the caste system, consisted of a hierarchy of priests, warriors, and free peasants, excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure. The pastoral and nomadic Indo-Aryans spread from the Punjab into the Gangetic plain, large swaths of which they deforested for agriculture usage. The composition of Vedic texts ended around 600 BCE, when a new, interregional culture arose. Small chieftaincies, or janapadas, were consolidated into larger states, or mahajanapadas, and a second urbanisation took place. This urbanisation was accompanied by the rise of new ascetic movements in Greater Magadha, including Jainism and Buddhism, which opposed the growing influence of Brahmanism and the primacy of rituals, presided by Brahmin priests, that had come to be associated with Vedic religion, and gave rise to new religious concepts. In response to the succes of these movements, Vedic Brahmanism was synthesised with the preexisting religious cultures of the subcontinent, giving rise to Hinduism.Indian Cultural Influence (Greater India)
Most of the Indian subcontinent was conquered by the Maurya Empire during the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE. From the 3rd century BCE onwards Prakrit and Pali literature in the north and the Tamil Sangam literature in southern India started to flourish. Wootz steel originated in south India in the 3rd century BCE and was exported to foreign countries. During the Classical period, various parts of India were ruled by numerous dynasties for the next 1,500 years, among which the Gupta Empire stands out. This period, witnessing a Hindu religious and intellectual resurgence, is known as the classical or "Golden Age of India". During this period, aspects of Indian civilisation, administration, culture, and religion (Hinduism and Buddhism) spread to much of Asia, while kingdoms in southern India had maritime business links with the Middle East and the Mediterranean. Indian cultural influence spread over many parts of Southeast Asia, which led to the establishment of Indianised kingdoms in Southeast Asia (Greater India).
The most significant event between the 7th and 11th century was the Tripartite struggle centred on Kannauj that lasted for more than two centuries between the Pala Empire, Rashtrakuta Empire, and Gurjara-Pratihara Empire. Southern India saw the rise of multiple imperial powers from the middle of the fifth century, most notably the Chalukya, Chola, Pallava, Chera, Pandyan, and Western Chalukya Empires. The Chola dynasty conquered southern India and successfully invaded parts of Southeast Asia, Sri Lanka, the Maldives, and Bengal in the 11th century. In the early medieval period Indian mathematics, including Hindu numerals, influenced the development of mathematics and astronomy in the Arab world.
Islamic conquests made limited inroads into modern Afghanistan and Sindh as early as the 8th century, followed by the invasions of Mahmud Ghazni. The Delhi Sultanate was founded in 1206 CE by Central Asian Turks who ruled a major part of the northern Indian subcontinent in the early 14th century, but declined in the late 14th century, and saw the advent of the Deccan Sultanates. The wealthy Bengal Sultanate also emerged as a major power, lasting over three centuries. This period also saw the emergence of several powerful Hindu states, notably Vijayanagara and Rajput states, such as Mewar. The 15th century saw the advent of Sikhism. The early modern period began in the 16th century, when the Mughal Empire conquered most of the Indian subcontinent, signalling the proto-industrialization, becoming the biggest global economy and manufacturing power, with a nominal GDP that valued a quarter of world GDP, superior than the combination of Europe's GDP. The Mughals suffered a gradual decline in the early 18th century, which provided opportunities for the Marathas, Sikhs, Mysoreans, Nizams, and Nawabs of Bengal to exercise control over large regions of the Indian subcontinent.
From the mid-18th century to the mid-19th century, large regions of India were gradually annexed by the East India Company, a chartered company acting as a sovereign power on behalf of the British government. Dissatisfaction with company rule in India led to the Indian Rebellion of 1857, which rocked parts of north and central India, and led to the dissolution of the company. India was afterwards ruled directly by the British Crown, in the British Raj. After World War I, a nationwide struggle for independence was launched by the Indian National Congress, led by Mahatma Gandhi, and noted for nonviolence. Later, the All-India Muslim League would advocate for a separate Muslim-majority nation state. The British Indian Empire was partitioned in August 1947 into the Dominion of India and Dominion of Pakistan, each gaining its independence.
Language in India :
They include, besides Sanskrit, the following 21 modern Indian languages: Assamese, Bangla, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi, Kashmiri, Kannada, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Tamil, Telugu, Santali, Sindhi, and Urdu.
Culture of India :
Indian culture is the heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems, artifacts and technologies that originated in or are associated with the Indian subcontinent. The term also applies beyond India to countries and cultures whose histories are strongly connected to India by immigration, colonization, or influence, particularly in South Asia and Southeast Asia. India's languages, religions, dance, music, architecture, food and customs differ from place to place within the country.Indian culture, often labelled as a combination of several cultures, has been influenced by a history that is several millennia old, beginning with the Indus Valley Civilization. Many elements of Indian culture, such as Indian religions, mathematics, philosophy, cuisine, languages, dance, music and movies have had a profound impact across the Indosphere, Greater India and the world.
Place to visit in India :
(1) The Red Fort, Delhi
(2) The Taj Mahal, Agra
(3) Pangong Lake, Ladakh
(4) Ruins of Hampi, Karnataka
(5) Ghats at Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh
(6) Old Goa, Goa
(7) Umaid Bhavan Palace, Jodhpur
(8) Jama Masjid, Delhi
(9) Akshardham Temple, Delhi
(10) Old Bombay, Mumbai
(11) The Golden Temple, Amritsar
Hotel in India :
(1) The Taj Mahal Palace, Mumbai
(2) The Oberoi Udaivilas, Udaipur
(3) Radisson Hotel Agra
(4) Taj Falaknuma Palace, Hyderabad
(5) Crowne Plaza Greater Noida, an IHG Hotel
(6) Taj Falaknuma Palace, Hyderabad
How to reach in India :
India has four major airports at Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata. The Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (Mumbai) and the Indira Gandhi International Airport (Delhi) are some of the best airports in the world. The other major airports are at Bangalore, Hyderabad and Kochi. There are numerous non-stop and direct flights to these airports from all the major countries in the world. Major Indian airlines include Air India, Jet Airways and Indigo. The secondary points of entry to India are through Jaipur, Goa, Trivandrum, Trichy, Coimbatore, Madurai, Ahmedabad and Pune.
Travel Guide for India : Food, hotel, Cost, Weather & geography, History, language, culture, things to see and do and how to reach. – Published by The Beyond News (Travelling).